Why is it important to warm up before training?
The following types of workout are distinguished:
passive – increase in body temperature by various means, for example a hot shower;
general – increase in body temperature with the help of active movements of the main muscle groups, for example jogging, calisthenics, etc .;
special – increase in body temperature with the help of physical exercises, including movements characteristic of a particular sport.
The most effective is an active type of workout; passive warm-up (sauna, hot shower) – less effective. Hegberg and Ljunggren compared the effects of a warm-up, including a combination of running and calisthenics, and a warm-up, which involves a passive increase in body temperature as a result of staying in the sauna for 20 minutes before performing physical exercises. They found that passive warm-up had a much smaller impact. This, apparently, is explained by the fact that when performing physical exercises, an increase in body temperature occurs due to changes in metabolic processes and mechanical properties of tissues; the effect of the warm-up lasts 45-80 minutes. This indicator, most likely, largely depends on the level of motor activity, as well as on environmental conditions. An increase in rectal temperature of 1-2 ° C is likely to be sufficient to achieve the temperature-related benefits of the warm-up.
As a result of an inadequate warm-up before training, muscles that are antagonists of intensely contracting muscles are most often damaged. Being unprepared, these muscles relax slowly and incompletely, thereby delaying the execution of free movements and disrupting precise coordination. An adequate warm-up before muscle activity is a way to prevent the stretching of these muscles. Thus, warming up before intense physical activity reduces the number and severity of musculoskeletal injuries.
types of warm-ups
There are three main methods for doing stretching exercises:
Ballistic. It uses repetitive hopping movements.
Static. The muscle is stretched to the point of discomfort and is fixed in this position for some time.
Proprioceptive improvement of neuromuscular transmission of impulses, including the alternation of contractions and stretching of the muscle.
Each of these methods causes a different stretch reflex reaction. According to experts, the ballistic method is fraught with some danger, and the other two are more effective. Ballistic stretching is characterized by repeated hopping movements, when the muscles quickly stretch and immediately restore their original length. The inhibitory effects of the stretch reflex on ballistic stretching are often cited as the main reason for the low efficiency of this method.
Studies that have compared the effects of different stretching exercises to improve flexibility have shown conflicting results. Already in 1941, Kareton in his studies suggested that increasing flexibility helps increase the strength and elasticity of muscle-tendon structures, and also that stretching exercises increase the amplitude of joint movements.
Muscles have a natural ability to contract and shorten. Therefore, it is not surprising that stretching exercises are widely used to prevent muscle-tendon injuries, increase flexibility, improve muscle activity and reduce the degree of pain in the muscle area after training sessions. Most athletes perform stretching exercises because they help prevent muscle injuries. Viktorsson-Meller et al. Studied the effects of general warm-up (work on a bicycle ergometer for 15 minutes), massage (6-15 minutes) and stretching exercises on range of motion and strength (isokinetic analysis) in eight male volunteers. The amplitude of flexion of the ankle joint increased backward as a result of massage and warm-up, while stretching exercises increased the amplitude of the movements tested. Thus, stretching exercises are the most effective way to develop flexibility. They can be successfully used to eliminate pain in the muscles that occur after training loads.
Warm up after class
Warm up before training Many athletes warm up not only before a training session, but also after it. The results of studies by Extrand et al. Have shown that warming up after a training session reduces the number of injuries.
The favorable physiological results of the warm-up after the training session are well known. The elimination of lactic acid after exercise is of great importance during competitive activity, since it is known to inhibit the intensity of glycolysis.