Massage and self-massage as the main means of restoring the body after exercise
Athlete training is characterized by two opposing processes that make up one whole. On the one hand, this is a decrease in working capacity as a result of the training work performed (and the higher the load, the more significantly the working capacity is reduced), on the other hand, it is its restoration and super-recovery.
A systematic increase in the volume and intensity of training loads is an indispensable condition for the growth of sports results. But the process of intensification of the training process cannot take place without creating favorable conditions for recovery processes. Recovery activities should be rationally combined with training at various stages of the training and competitive activities of the athlete. The use of restorative means should not interfere with the training process, but help it, increasing the speed of restorative processes.
Sports Recovery Techniques
Methods of restoring sports performance are divided into: pedagogical, psychological and biomedical.
The pedagogical means of recovery include, first of all, the variation of the intervals of rest between repetitions of individual exercises, runs, etc., between training sessions, between weekly cycles with different loads, etc.
This is expressed, first of all, in wave-like load planning both within one training session, and within the monthly, annual and Olympic training cycles. This group of recovery means also includes the use of various forms of outdoor activities, conducting classes on the ground, in the lap of nature, various types of switching from one type of work to another, etc. Pedagogical means of recovery are the main ones, as they determine the athletes’ regime and the right combination loads and rest at all stages of long-term preparation.
They include: rational planning of training in accordance with the functional capabilities of the athlete’s body, the correct combination of general and special tools, the optimal construction of training and competitive micro- and macrocycles, the wide use of switching, a clear organization of work and rest; the correct construction of a separate training session using tools to relieve fatigue (a full-fledged individual warm-up, selection of shells, places for classes, exercises for outdoor activities and relaxation, creating a positive emotional background); varying rest intervals between the performance of individual exercises and training sessions; development of a system for planning and using various restorative means in monthly and annual training cycles; development of methods of physical exercises aimed at accelerating the recovery of athletes’ performance, improving motor skills, training tactical actions.
Pedagogical tools are the main ones, since without them it makes no sense to use special means of accelerating recovery.
Psychological methods of restoring and enhancing athletic performance are aimed at relieving neuro-psychological stress, contribute to the rapid restoration of the motor environment and physical functions of the body and are most widely used in the competitive period of preparation and performance at the competition.
A special place among the means of recovery that contribute to increasing physical performance, as well as preventing the occurrence of various negative consequences from physical exertion, is given to biomedical products, which include: a balanced diet, physical and hydro procedures, pharmacological preparations and vitamins, various types of massage, protein preparations, sports drinks, balneotherapy, barotherapy, local negative pressure (LOD), the use of baths (saunas), oxygen therapy, acid natural cocktail, adaptogens and drugs that affect energy processes, the use of needle exposure, electrical stimulation, electric sleep, aeronization, the use of music.
One of the indispensable means of restoring strength and increasing the performance of athletes, as well as rehabilitation after injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system, diseases of the internal organs, is massage.
Modern sport makes great demands on the athlete’s body. For the further growth of sports achievements, it is necessary to constantly improve the training process using the entire arsenal of funds aimed at improving the performance of athletes.
Sports massage is a series of specially selected massage techniques that help preserve muscle tone, prepare the body for great physical exertion, relieve fatigue, and restore speed after training (competitive) loads.