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Proper construction of the training process provides

Proper construction of the training process provides:

– harmonious development of basic physical, moral and moral-volitional qualities;
– creates a solid foundation for general and special preparedness;
– allows you to bring to a high level the capabilities of the body on the basis of a gradual increase in load in a gentle mode using variability in direction and tension;
– provides individualization of training loads, taking into account the phases of a specific biological cycle and on the basis of regular comprehensive monitoring of women’s well-being.
man and woman

Particular attention should be paid to the teenage period, when physical exercises should be combined with complex restructuring of all body functions during puberty, and overloads can lead to functional disorders and developmental delay. Compared to adults and women, adolescent girls aged 14–15 years old have 1.5 times more oxygen demand for moderate-power work, and 1.2 times higher for work at the IPC level; less tidal volume and systolic blood volume, but higher respiratory rate and heart rate during exercise; arteriovenous difference and oxygen utilization is lower; when working at the IPC level, the blood pH decreases only to 7.3; failure occurs with small shifts in pH and homeostasis. The competent use of physical activity leads to an increase in the functional capabilities of the body of girls and girls, which in many important indicators of their functional state, aerobic and anaerobic capabilities, and physical qualities begin to significantly exceed their peers who are not involved in fitness.

For those engaged in aerobic fitness, especially during endurance training, higher aerobic abilities of the body are characteristic than for girls whose training is dominated by speed-strength and power orientation. During strength training in women, working muscle hypertrophy is less pronounced than in men, which is associated with a smaller number of male sex hormones in the female body. However, the use of testosterone, other androgens or their derivatives for the development of strength is extremely harmful. This leads to pathological disorders in the female body – the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, violation and complete cessation of ovulation and menstruation, the impossibility of childbearing. In training sessions, special care should be taken when developing women with endurance, paying special attention to increasing strength and endurance of the abdominal muscles and pelvic floor, which are of great importance for reproductive function. Isometric exercises must be combined with dynamic ones. With the speed orientation of training sessions, women achieve significant changes in the quality of speed, although in absolute terms they lag behind men. There were no differences in the rhythm of movements in men and women. Perception of time in women has its own characteristics. Their individual minute is shorter, that is, they measure a smaller interval when measuring the minute. In women, a more pronounced change in an individual minute during the day and under stress. Relatively easier than men, flexibility develops. It especially rises during stressful situations, in a pre-launch state and decreases with fatigue. Women are distinguished by high dexterity and accuracy, their movements are characterized by great smoothness and aesthetics. The implementation of highly coordinated actions is facilitated by the formation in the process of training of cortical systems of interconnected activity involved in the control of women’s movements. Their improvement is facilitated by the performance of exercises accompanied by musical accompaniment. The regular use of large volumes of training loads, insufficient adherence to the principle of gradualness in increasing their volume and intensity, especially in young girls, can lead to adverse changes, especially to violations of the ovarian-menstrual cycles, their regularity, intensity and complete cessation. Large loads cause an increase in the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone by the pituitary gland and, accordingly, the release of androgens by the adrenal glands. This inhibits the gonadotropic function of the pituitary gland, and as a result, ovarian function is impaired. Intensive workouts with a large volume of loads, begun before the onset of puberty, can delay the onset of the first menstruation, and after their onset – lead to their secondary disappearance. Similar changes are mostly found in endurance girls. Menstrual irregularities depend on excessive loads and do not depend on the chosen type of fitness.

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