At the same time, a higher level of motivation, as well as better indicators of women’s learning ability, determine their achievement of significant success. Women are characterized by higher emotional excitability, emotional instability and anxiety compared to men. They are very sensitive to rewards and comments, which must be taken into account when pedagogical influences, especially when working with teenage girls. High sensitivity of skin receptors, motor and vestibular sensory systems, subtle differentiation of muscle senses contribute to the development of good coordination of movements, their smoothness and clarity. The stability of vestibular reactions increases especially in the period from 8 to 13-14 years. At this age, the motor sensory system is rapidly improving, the ability to differentiate the amplitude of movements is growing. It is important to use this period of development of the body to improve coordination of movements, increase the stability of the vestibular apparatus, mastery of static and dynamic balance, the formation of complex motor skills. Women have sharp eyesight, a high ability to distinguish colors, and good deep vision. Their field of vision is wider than that of men. Visual signals reach the cerebral cortex faster and cause a more pronounced reaction. All this determines the perfection of oculomotor reactions, confident orientation of movements in space. The ability to call colors develops in girls earlier than in boys, color vision disorders in women are much less common than in men. By the age of 12, the main period of development of the visual sensory system is ending. In the visual region of the cerebral cortex, a clear rhythm of the biopotentials of the adult brain is established – about 10 vibrations in 1 s. The auditory system is more sensitive to high frequencies of the sound range, with age, this difference between women becomes more noticeable.
Musical hearing in women is six times better than in men, which facilitates their movement to music. Women have less than men, body length – on average by 10 cm, and its weight – by 10 kg. Smaller sizes of the body correspond to smaller sizes of internal organs and muscle mass. There are differences in the proportions of different parts of the body: the limbs of women are shorter and the trunk is longer, the transverse dimensions of the pelvis are larger, and the shoulders are narrower. These structural features of the body cause a lower general position of the center of mass, which contributes to better balance. However, the large width of the pelvis reduces the efficiency of movements during locomotion. Due to the good mobility of the spine and the elasticity of the ligamentous apparatus, a significant range of movements, great flexibility are possible. The beauty and effectiveness of movements is also facilitated by the fact that women are more likely to have a high arch of the foot and less often flat feet. Left-handedness is found three times less than in men. Right-side asymmetry is noticeably predominant compared with men – a combination of the advantages of the right arm, leg and eye. The female body is characterized by specific features of manifestation and the earlier development of physical qualities in the process of individual development. The absolute muscle strength in women is less than in men, since they have thinner muscle fibers and less muscle mass. The ratio of slow and fast fibers in the muscles does not depend on gender. Despite the lower values of the absolute muscle strength, the relative strength in women, due to their smaller body mass, almost reaches male indicators, and even surpasses them for the thigh muscles. The maximum arbitrary strength of the weaker muscles of the arm, shoulder girdle and trunk is 40–70% of the indicators in women for men, and the stronger muscles of the legs are 70–80%. During individual development, the greatest increase in absolute strength in adolescent girls is observed at 12-14 years. This is the most favorable age for its development. Maximum strength indicators are achieved in 15-16 years. Relative strength with increasing body weight may practically not increase or even decrease. In young athletes, a faster increase in absolute strength and a relatively smaller increase in body weight contribute to an increase in relative muscle strength. Speed-power capabilities to the greatest extent improved in 10-14 years. During this period, jumping ability is especially noticeable. Women are less developed in the quality of speed than men. They spend more time processing the information entering the body. In this regard, the duration of the visual-motor reaction is longer. The time of a simple motor reaction of a hand to light irritations in untrained individuals is on average 190 ms, for highly qualified athletes – 120 ms, and for athletes – 140 ms. The motor reaction time is sharply reduced to 10-13 years. This period is most favorable for the development of speed in girls.